Category Archives: Non-Fiction

Contains all non-fiction book posts.


Litercurious Book Review

Seducing and Killing Nazis by Sophie Poldermans
Seducing and Killing Nazis by Sophie Poldermans
TitleSeducing and Killing Nazis
AuthorSophie Poldermans
PublisherSWW Press; 1 edition (August 1, 2019)
FormatKindle, Paperback     

Author’s Bio

Sophie Poldermans is a Dutch, Women’s rights activist and lecturer. She formerly worked at the National Hannie Shaft Foundation (NHSF). It was at the NHSF that she learned of the heroic actions of three Dutch young women and the tragic end of one of them. Poldermans seeks to lift the veil of time off this forgotten tale of daring-do and to remind us of all the sacrifices that many women made during the war.   

Who is the Target Audience?

Seducing and Killing Nazis is foremost a history book but it is also a memorial to Hannie Shaft, one victim of millions. The story is told by her friend Freddie Oversteegen, who is now 90 years old, and her sister Truus. This personal account of the events of World War II will satisfy; students of Military History or those studying the events in Europe during World War II, and those studying the Shoah. It may also be interesting to Feminists and other women. If you enjoy reading about strong characters, especially personal accounts of women in war situations, you could find this book inspirational on many levels.


Seducing and Killing Nazis is monograph by Sophie Poldermans. She introduces us to three ordinary girls who did extraordinary acts during tumultuous times. Of the three main characters, two are still alive; Freddie Oversteegen and her sister Truus Oversteegen. The third woman, Hannie Shaft sadly lost her battle in 1945. I could go further into the details of the in-depth biographical account of the surviving sisters and the historically available information researched by Poldermans; but to experience the life of these women and girls during the horrors of that era, you really need to read this book for yourself. Fortunately, this book is available in many formats and stores. If you enjoy well researched, concisely written, biography of the horrors of war from the female perspective then this is the book you may enjoy.


Sophie Poldermans has provided a valuable account of the dire experiences of three young females. Their lives, and for Hannie her death, forever changed by their experiences and activities. They may have begun as ordinary students but they ended up being remarkable women. Their stories are inspirational and their bravery is undeniable. These three teenagers set a high standard for the rest of us to follow. I could not help but be inspired and motivated by the life they describe. It is a perfect memorial to the life and times of Hannie Shaft, the forgotten heroine of World War II.


My sincere thanks go to: NetGalley and the Publisher SWW Press for affording me the opportunity to review of Seducing and Killing Nazis.

The Mystery of the Exploding Teeth – REVIEW

Litercurious Book Review

Title The Mystery of the Exploding Teeth: And Other
Curiosities from the History of Medicine
Author / Narrator Thomas Morris / Ruper Farley
Publisher Penguin Dutton; 1 edition (Nov 20, 2018)
Format Unabridged Audiobook, Kindle, Paperback, Hardcover
Time9 hours and 7 minutes
Language English     
ASIN # B07K1FC2C1  


Thomas Morris was a successful radio producer for the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) for many years. He is now a freelance writer and medical historian. His first book, The Matter of the Heart: A History of the Heart in Eleven Operations, wonthe Royal Society of Literature and the Jerwood Charitable Foundation award. The award is one of three annual awards, one of £10,000 and two of £5,000, offered to authors on their first works of non-fiction. Mr. Morris now lives in London.


This book is for everyone 16 or older. The Mystery of the Exploding Teeth is written for the masses and not just for those who want to learn about historic medicine. The book is full of individual cases hand-picked through time to provide the reader with a glimpse of common medical procedures, some uncommon medical procedures, and allot of very interesting cases.


The Mystery of the Exploding Teeth: And Other Curiosities from the History of Medicine, is a sojourn into some of the most interesting medical cases and the procedures used in those cases. It is told through the eyes of the people who were actually there. This book is a conglomeration of notes, letters, personal views of the doctors, and sometimes the patients. The author does a great job of finding the most interesting cases in history. There are some interesting cases that include various items escaping the bodies from all different places, some not very good places. How about the surgeries where the patient is not anesthetized and is an active participant? There is a chapter of patients who survived extreme injuries, some lived normal lives after their injuries.


After reading this book, I listened to the audible version and the narrator added so much more to the enjoyment. He does a great job with the inflection of his voice and the bits that are in French. The little jokes he throws in are awesome. This tome, at times, had me laughing, cringing, crying, and always wondering about the historic doctors and their sometime weird practices. The cases offer a wide variety of injuries and maladies; the causes of some of these will haunt me. I would definitely recommend this book to a friend.


Dr. Mütter Marvels by Cristin O'Keefe Aptowicz  #Medicine History & Commentary #History of Medicine
#Trivia & Fun Facts

Dr. Mütter’s Marvels was established by Dr. Mütter who sadly died prematurely at the age of 48. He left behind an immense collection of medical oddities that form the basis of Philadelphia’s renowned Mütter Museum. Dr Mütter’s Marvel by Cristin O’Keefe Aptowicz is an insight into the dedicated surgeon’s career as well as his life and times. Aptowicz presents her view on Dr. Mütter’s medical practices and the prejudices he witnessed. Aptowicz draws upon Mütter’s speeches and lectures which reveals his humanist based approach.

Mütter Museum Historical Medical Photographs #Medicine History & Commentary #History of Medicine
#Trivia & Fun Facts

Mütter Museum: Historical Medical Photographs Is a cornucopia of high quality photographs taken by professional photographers. Between the 1860s and the 1940s, photographers took pictures of these oddities as records for physicians to share among medical colleagues. They also functioned, at the time, to demonstrate various techniques used in medicine such as micrography and X-ray. During the earliest days, they utilized the method of photography known as the daguerreotype. This processing method required the photographer to polish a sheet of copper plate with silver halide coated to a mirror finish, and treat it with fumes that made its surface light sensitive. There is much more to the Mütter Museum however, and it is not for the squeamish.

London A-Z – REVIEW

Litercurious Book Review

London A-Z
London A-Z
TitleLondon A-Z                           
AuthorGeographer’s A-Z Map Co.      
PublisherHunter Publishing: Geographers A-Z Map Co. Ltd. (6th Ed., October 30, 2006     
ISBN #1843483289 ISBN-13 (978-1843483281)    

Author’s Bio

The Geographer’s A-Z Map is the registered author of this 6th Edition publication; a paperback, dated: 30thOctober 2006.

Who is the target audience?

Those considering studying “The Knowledge” would be the first that would come to mind when considering who would benefit from this paperback. That said anyone wanting to know how to find anything in London would be well advised to get one.


The London A-Z, I know her well. 

I continue to use traditional methods of locating the places I wish to travel. I find looking at a  page of the London A-Z allows me at a glance to find the path I want to take. I avoid the constant directions of an electronic voice dictating the one and only route to a destination. I live for the times I get lost and find strange and interesting locations with intriguing back stories. I am not a technophobe; in fact I am an advanced user, designer, and educator in technology related subjects. I prefer my choice of directions and those happy times where I occasionally meet people or accidentally visit places that would have been missed if I used my GPS. 

Then there is the utility of humor built into reference materials such as the London A-Z. I have been known to flip through to the index of the book and look up the funny or unusual names contained therein. These names vary from crude and lascivious names from the deep and distant past of London. Names that echo from the Saxon roots, Roman street names, and the place names inspired by the work people did at that location in times now past.  The back stories of many of the locations you can find in the index of the London A-Z can be fascinating and add to your lexicon of humorous tales or intriguing myths to discuss with those who find such matters interesting. For example there is a place called Bleeding Heart Yard, you can find it in East Central 1 (EC1). It is in Clerkenwell and is reported to be so named owing to a murder that happened there in the year 1626. It turns out however, that the woman reputed to have been murdered actually died 20 years later and not of natural causes. If you are a reader of Charles Dickens work you may recall the case; he included in his book The Little Dorrit. 

Not far from the Tower of London there is a street named Knightrider Street  (Knyghriderstrete in 1322 language). The street is named after the knights that would traverse this area from the Tower old London to Jousting tournaments in Smithfeilds. Then there is the plethora of funny, licentious, and salacious Public House and place names; for example there is Wardrobe Place in EC4. It was at this location that King Edward 3rd housed his walk-in wardrobe. Sadly, the building was destroyed in the now infamous Great Fire of London 1666. Then there is Cock Lane, EC1, a wonderful erection if I do say so myself. Cock Lane is another, all be it humorous, example of a place name that has relevance to the trade plied there in the past. Cock Lane was the only street in the City (City of London, The square mile, a private corporation) where ladies of the evening were allowed to live and work. Last but not least there is Hanging Sword Alley in EC4. In medieval times most of the country was illiterate and so there was no naming or numbering of houses, they preferred instead to use symbols. In the case of a coffee house there would often be a ladies arm holding a coffee pot. At the house on Hang Sword Lane there was a mansion and they used a hanging sword as their symbol. The area was known for fighting schools and as a rough place to visit which is probably why the Blood Bowl Alley came to be named. Again those of you familiar with Dickens work will find a reference to such places in A Tale of Two Cities in the form of Jerry Cruncher body-snatcher. 

I suggest if you are bored and in search of adventure, turn off your GPS get yourself a London A-Z and go and lose yourself for a few hours in London. Visit the places you never knew existed and perhaps find your other self.  

Always remember that a book can be much more than its cover.


Be it the times of Pax Romanaus or Pax Britainica always have your trusty and reliable cartographic entertainment on your person, because you never know when you’ll need the London A-Z.

Competing in the Age of AI – REVIEW

Litercurious Book Reviews

Competing in the age of AI by By Marco Iansiti & Karim R. Lakhani  
Competing in the age of AI by By Marco Iansiti & Karim R. Lakhani        
TitleCompeting in the age of AI                                     
AuthorMarco Iansiti & Karim R. Lakhani                    
PublisherHarvard Business Review Press (January 7, 2020)     
FormatKindle, Hardcover          

Author’s Bio

Marco Iansiti is a Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School. His special expertise revolves around Technology and Operations Management. He advises Blue Chip companies globally on operational transition, and technological transformation for the 21st Century. Iansiti and Lakhani posit workable solutions and invaluable insights into the infinite utility of AI.   

I studied Managerial Cybernetics, Systems Analysis, and Systems Development under the tutelage of Stafford Beer for both my B.Sc., and M.Sc. I am currently evaluating how the synthesis of a variety of recent technologies can be applied to extend the economic potential of large distributed networks and International organizations. Much of my work includes related issues raised in Competing in The Age of AI. My experience and my academic credentials, I believe afford me a unique perspective on this manuscript.

Iansiti is a prolific author of publications based on a particular area of expertise. Some of his works include: Digital Ubiquity, The Truth About Blockchain (Iansiti & Lakhani), The Keystone Advantage (Roy Levine), and Managing Our Hub Economy. Those looking for advice on establishing digital advantage or operational model transformation of a global organization need look no further than Competing in The Age of AI. 

Karim R. Lakhani is a Business Administration Professor at Harvard Business School. Lakhani is the co-director of the Laboratory of Innovation Science at Harvard’s Institute of Quantitative Social Science, as well as the Chair of the Harvard Business School’s Analytics Program. His area of expertise is innovation and technology management. He is the author of numerous articles and case studies on technology, digital commerce, and digital innovation. He has been published in a myriad of significant publications that include: The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, and Business Week among many others.  

Who is the target audience?

This is probably the most important book on business application of digital innovations this decade. This thesis is suitable for those who want or need to understand the potential for the increased span, scope, and scale afforded by the appropriate utilization of digital innovations, particularly artificial intelligence as applied to business models. Iansiti and Lakhani’s concept provides a most important tool for Captains of industry, investors, CEOs, entrepreneurs, and students of business and technology. Iansiti and Lakhani’s publication is a must read for all those who want to improve their understanding of the application of AI in organizations. Competing in the Age of AI should be compulsory reading for all those involved in leveraging competitive advantage in the new business world underpinned by artificial intelligence.


The discussions herein include the question of ethics in application and distribution of technology. Iansiti and Lakhani’s have provided a map for the exploitation of the technical advances provided by new technology. The authors have given practical advice on the strengths, limitations, and challenges of employing artificial intelligence to support and augment a company’s strategy.


Competing in The Age of AI is a seminal work, containing all the key ingredients for global companies to explore in order to improve competitive advantage.  Iansiti and Lakhani have provided sensible, practical jargon-free explanations for the application of advanced technology strategies and advice on the potential effects on span, scope, and scale across the organization. 


My sincere thanks go to: NetGalley, and Harvard Business Review Press for affording me the opportunity to review of Competing in the Age of AI.

Fire And Fortitude – REVIEW

A Litercurious Book Review

Title Fire And Fortitude
Author John C. McManus
Publisher Dutton Caliber; 1st Edition (July 30, 2019)
Format Hardcover
Pages 640
Language English
ISBN # 0451475046 (ISBN-13: 978-0451475046)

Authors Bio

John C. McManus is a 54-year-old Professor, and Military Historian. McManus is also a long-established author of Military history focusing on the United States involvement in the battle space of World War 2. McManus has more than 14 books currently in print and Fire and Fortitude is his most recent foray into his favored genre. Among his previous publications are such notable works as: Grunts, World War 2 Through Iraq, and The Dead and Those About to Die. A graduate of the University of Missouri he experienced a short stint as a sports journalist before electing to study his Masters in American History at his alma mater. He followed his successful completion of that qualification and began his doctorate, also in American Military History at the University of Tennessee. The primary focus of his Ph.D, was the Normandy battle grounds. McManus style of writing focuses on humanizing the military machine by focusing upon individuals, and the sometimes-insuperable challenges they sometimes face. His earlier work Grunts and The Dead and Those About to Die follow that method. Fire and Fortitude is his first forage into the Pacific Theater of Operation.


I must say, first and foremost, that Fire and Fortitude is very well researched. It is resplendent with quotes from dairies, personal letters, newspaper clippings, and magazine articles. Professor. McManus provides a glimpse into the horror, the desperation, the futility of some of the major battles from all sides of those in this great conflict. Whether the soldier is Japanese, American, Australian, or an indigenous island person the reader feels what they felt at the time. 

Part One: Onslaught of the book was tedious to get through. I felt that the author exhibited a degree of bias against General McArthur. The picture of McArthur painted in the book makes him out to be an egomaniacal mommas’ boy; with a narcissistic personality disorder who could do nothing right and the whole Philippine debacle was his fault. I don’t deny the facts, but reading the same thing over and over is tedious. MaArthur’s failings as a General, leader, friend, and politician are a theme throughout the entire book.

The chapters of life in Australia were a bore. I really don’t care about mutton hot dogs, drinking, womanizing, bar fighting, or the recreation practices of soldiers in Australia while they waited to join the war effort. I want to read about the Fire and Fortitude that I was promised in the title of the book. 

The author seems to want to brush over the atrocities committed by the Japanese soldiers and write them off as a byproduct of war. He briefly describes a few atrocities during the Bataan Death March and in China, but fails to bring the full extent of their hideous war crimes to the reader. He makes out that the Japanese soldiers were victims of circumstance. The fact that the Japanese soldiers committed vile, brutal acts on POW’s, soldiers, and civilians in different parts of the world at the same time, describes the mindset of the Japanese as a society during WWII.

Part Two: Turnabout of the book is where the author really shines. He finally gets into the Fire and Fortitude of armed conflict. The soldiers, the battles, the fear, the suffering, and the constant hand-to-hand fighting are all brought to life in vivid detail. There is still political infighting and poor leadership but there is also heroism, undying loyalty, and bravery on all sides. Once I got into the second half of this book, I just couldn’t put it down. It was absolutely enthralling. The suffering that the soldiers went through, both Japanese and Allied, was incalculable. Disease, famine, and wounds all surrounded by the dead and dying was equally prevalent to all sides of the conflict. Some soldiers were reduced to cannibalism just to keep alive because of the environmental and logistical nightmares of resupply. Soldiers faced hand-to-hand fighting to the death in the dark wet jungles or Alaskan muskeg. Soldiers were  just trying to survive another night, another day.


Fire and Fortitude is a very good book if you start at Part Two: Turnabout. The research into this book is phenomenal. The reader can’t help but to learn something new. Sometimes the book is tedious, other times it is exciting and nerve wracking. Regardless, the book is an overall good read.


My sincere thanks go to: The Author, NetGalley, and the Publisher Dutton Caliber for affording me the opportunity to review Fire And Fortitude.

The Mosquito – REVIEW

A Litercurious Book Review

Mosquito by Timothy Winegard
Title The Mosquito: A Human History of Our Deadliest
Author Timothy C. Winegard
Publisher Penguin Group Dutton, 1st Edition (August 6, 2019)
Format Kindle, Paperback, Hardcover, Audiobook
Pages 496
Language English
ISBN # 1524743410 (ISBN-13: 978-1524743413)

About the Author:

Dr. Timothy C. Winegard is a military historian who graduated from Oxford University with a PhD and is currently a professor of history and political science at Colorado Mesa University. He is best known for his works on military history however, he has written on the subject of indigenous studies. Before becoming a best-selling writer, Dr. Winegard worked as a military officer with his native Canadians and later the British forces. He is a  sports fan and stalwart supporter of his favorite teams: the Detroit Lions and the Detroit Red Wings. Despite his busy schedule, the good doctor likes to spend his down time with his family at home.

Who is the target audience?

If you gravitate to the nonfiction, history, evolution, or similar shelves in your local bookshop, you may enjoy the exquisite prose and comprehensive research in The MosquitoA Human History of Our Deadliest Predator.  

What is this book about?

The story of The Mosquito spans thousands of years beginning with the evolution of the insect that plagues our lives to this day. Dr. Winegard’s writing style is reminiscent of Guns, Germs, and Steel or even a Simon Winchester.  The focus of the book is the intimate relationship that mosquitos and humans have shared over time, and the impact on humanities antiquity and on its future. The book is abundant in superlative research and in witty humor. By the end of the book you will be in no doubt as to the destruction this tiny insect has wrought across the human world throughout history. You will learn a plethora of facts and information through a skillful scientific style of writing. Timothy gives you the big picture, a map of the problem that allows you to trace the changes to human existence shaped by the illnesses spread by one of our most dangerous predators. 


The Mosquito: A Human History of Our Deadliest Predator, By Timothy C. Winegard is a masterfully written book, being both fascinating and funny. Mosquito is jam packed with in-depth and informed research. It is epic in its breadth, and chronicled with skill. Ultimately, the book is infinitely entertaining, educational, and surprising at times. The book does prompt the thought that humanity believes itself to be top of the food chain, but are we really when such a tiny combatant can wreak such havoc? 

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the following: Penguin Group Dutton, Dr. Timothy C. Winegard, and NetGalley for allowing me to review this book.


How To Bake Pi – REVIEW

A Litercurious Book Review

How to Bake Pi by Eugenia Cheng
How to Bake Pi by Eugenia Cheng
Title How To Bake Pi
Author Eugenia Cheng
Publisher Basic Books (May 5, 2015)
Format Kindle, Audiobook, Hardback, Paperback
Pages 300
Language English
ISBN # 0465097677 (ISBN-13: 978-0465097678)

Who is Eugenia Cheng?

Eugenia Loh-Gene Cheng is a British mathematician who specializes in a fringe area of mathematics referred to as Higher-Dimensional Category Theory. She is also known for her support of popular mathematics. Among her many publications are The Art of Logic and, my personal favorite, Beyond Infinity. Professor Cheng attended school at Roedean and is a graduate of The University of Cambridge with her Thesis: Higher-dimensional category theory: opetopic foundations (2002). She graduated with both a BA and a PhD.

Who is the target audience?

This book could appeal to anyone; perhaps with the exception of those traumatized by ill intentioned or professionally inept math teachers. Eugenia has taken the everyday practice of baking and uses it as frame to hang mathematical theories on, to make the mathematics more accessible to a wider audience, and to simplify the theory for the common man. These theories are not new concepts, however, they may be fresh concepts to you. It is a skillfully woven discourse with Category Theory at its heart. Of course there may be some people who will not understand the basic concepts, but I believe the majority of people who read this book will learn something that may benefit them.

In this book

Having read How to Bake Pi, I’ve noted the Professor is a skilled and gifted educator. She takes the art of teaching mathematics to a whole new level. Her ability to enlighten the audience is due in part to her: familiarity with her subject, and her varied methods to demystify the subject; while simultaneously encouraging an enthusiasm for math that most people never knew they had.

I enjoyed the humor and the lucidity of her delivery. The mathematical logic is there throughout the text, but it is softened through: clear, lucid, and work-a-day explanations that aid the reader in exploring the world of math.


I found this book to be engaging, warm, effusive, and fun. Ultimately, Eugenia has proven that it isn’t what you teach, but how you teach that makes the difference.


Thanks to the following: NetGalley, Basic Books, and Eugenia Cheng.

A Date With The Hangman – REVIEW

A Litercurious Book Review

A Date With The Hangman By Gary Dobbs
A Date with The Hangman by Gary Dobbs
Title A Date With The Hangman
Author Gary M. Dobbs
Publisher Pen & Sword Ltd. (February 19, 2020)
Format Hardcover
Pages 152
Language English
ISBN # 152674743X (ISBN-13: 978-1526747433)

The Author

Gary Martin Dobbs may not be familiar to you; however, Gary has a long track record of writing books, starting when he was just 15 years old. Mr. Dobbs also writes under the pen name of Jack Martin; perhaps some of you have read his western novels and crime fictions. If you enjoy the Western Genre, you can find more on his work at The Fantastic Fiction site. A couple of his notable crime fiction novels include: Granny Smith, and Deadly Frogs. He also has an online blog where you can find out more about the author and see some of the book reviews he’s written. Not only is he an accomplished author, but he is an actor as well; more information can be found on IMDB (International Movie Database). He comes across as a very personable and engaging character which makes reading A Date With The Hangman more like a talk with a friend, rather than a cold retelling of horror. I enjoyed how concisely Gary recounted ancient traditions, methods of executions, and the slow integration of newer technologies for killing. I consider myself well-read when it comes to the subject of true crime; but I still learned new details, facts, and other information from A Date With The Hangman that were overlooked in similar books.

The Target Audience

You will enjoy this book if you’re interested in: true crime, history, non-fiction, or if you are an avid consumer of literature that has: macabre themes, strong adult content, detailed descriptions of death, murder, and Judicial executions. Whilst the subject matter is gritty, the author Gary Dobbs manages to engage the readers interest immediately. A Date With The Hangman is one of those books you will quickly know if it appeals to you, and if it does you are in for an engrossing sojourn.

My Synopsis

A Date With The Hangman could be considered a primer for anyone who wants to understand the context, methods, and atmosphere of historic Judicial executions. The book begins by introducing the contextual factors upon which to build an understanding of ancient crime and punishment. The central theme of the book is the nature, methods, reputations, and the personal history of some of England’s most notorious hangmen. The descriptions of some of the executions are so detailed that you can imagine standing there and witnessing the event yourself.

Once the vivid descriptions of the executions are complete, we are provided with a plethora of small paragraphs detailing briefly the date of execution, name and age of the offender, the name and age of the victim (if available), their conviction, where the execution took place, and their executioner. Portions of the book are referenced to a tedious degree yet leaves no doubt as to the authenticity of the material used. Toward the end of the book, I was very pleased to see that Gary had included the intensity to which the ethics of execution became a political hot potato. He describes the years leading up to the termination of Capital Punishment in the late 20th Century, as society became disillusioned with the execution of people that were later found to be innocent.


This book is well written, with good prose, and produced in an uncomplicated but concise manner from an author who researched his subject. The subject matter is gripping, sometimes terrifying, but most of all educating.


Gary Dobbs will soon be releasing another in the long line of books called: The Reluctant Terrorist, part of the successful Granny Smith Series. Available at the time of writing on KindleUnlimited – Read for free.

Why not pre-order yours and get to the front of the line. Pen & Sword Ltd., are offering a special price for: A Date With The Hangman, ending soon.



John Boessenecker has breathed new life into an old case; the case of Lillie N. Davy known by the sobriquets of Pearl Hart. Drawing upon his research skills, he’s removed the fallacies, the myths, the damn lies and revealed in extraordinary detail the life and times of Pearl Hart. She was one of the most notorious late 19th Century female criminals of the old West.

The Falcon Thief – REVIEW

The suspense builds as Andy McWilliam; the investigating detective uses all his acumen, resources, and cunning in the hunt for the buyers of illegal birds of prey. Hammer transports us from the gritty streets of Liverpool, in Great Britain to the opulent abodes in the desert heat of the Middle East, and then farther on into the Arctic in this epic pursuit.


On a Spring evening 98 years ago, 20 month old Charles Lindbergh Jr. was kidnapped and murdered. Eventually, the perpetrator was tracked down, tried and executed; at least that is what we thought. Norris reopens the case with a comprehensive breakdown of the people and events that led to the disappearance and subsequent death of the Lindberg baby.